- In-Text Citations: The Basics // Purdue Writing Lab
- How to Write Guide: How to Cite Other Papers in Your Paper
- College essay writing service
- When writing a paper, do I use italics for all titles? - Answers
When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice.
- Cause and effect essay thesis
- Catcher in the rye critical analysis essay topics
- Synthesis essay example with sources and prompt
All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission.
In-Text Citations: The Basics // Purdue Writing Lab
Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and cites of fair use. For more information, please cite the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed.
Reference citations in text are covered on pages of the Publication Manual. What follows are some general guidelines for how to the works of others in your essay.
This means that the author's last name and the year the publication for how source should appear in the text, the example, Jones,and a complete reference should appear in the essay list at the end of the cite. If you are referring to an idea from another work but NOT name quoting the material, or making reference to an name how, article or article work, you only have to essay reference to the author and year of publication and not the page number in your in-text reference.
All sources that are cited 3 pg doubl spaced cite the count the text must appear in the article list at the end of the essay.
Jones found "students often had difficulty using APA style" p. If the author is not named in a signal phrase, place the author's last name, the year of publication, and the page number in parentheses after the quotation. Long quotations Direct quotations longer than 40 words should be in a free-standing block of typewritten lines, and omit quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line, indented five spaces from the left margin. Type the entire quotation on the new margin, and indent the first line of any subsequent paragraph within the quotation five spaces from the new margin. Maintain double-spacing throughout. The parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark. Jones's study found the following: Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources. According to Jones , APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners. APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners Jones, , p. Citing an Author or Authors Two Authors: Name both authors in the signal phrase or in the parentheses each time you cite the work. Use the word "and" between the authors' names within the text and use the ampersand in the parentheses. Research by Wegener and Petty supports Kernis et al. Six or More Authors: Use the first author's name followed by et al. Harris et al. Titles of books and reports are italicized or underlined; titles of articles and chapters are in quotation marks. A similar study was done of students learning to format research papers "Using APA," Note: In the rare case the "Anonymous" is used for the author, treat it as the author's name Anonymous, In the reference list, use the name Anonymous as the author. Organization as an Author: If the author is an organization or a government agency, mention the organization in the signal phrase or in the parenthetical citation the first time you cite the source. According to the American Psychological Association , If the organization has a well-known abbreviation, include the abbreviation in brackets the first time the source is cited and then use only the abbreviation in later citations. Berndt, ; Harlow, Two or More Works by the Same Author in the Same Year: If you have two sources by the same author in the same year, use lower-case letters a, b, c with the year to order the entries in the reference list. Use the lower-case letters with the year in the in-text citation. Research by Berndt a illustrated that Personal Communication: For interviews, letters, e-mails, and other person-to-person communication, cite the communicator's name, the fact that it was personal communication, and the date of the communication. We see so many global warming hotspots in North America likely because this region has "more readily accessible climatic data and more comprehensive programs to monitor and study environmental change. In this example, since the reader does not know the author of the article, an abbreviated title appears in the parenthetical citation, and the full title of the article appears first at the left-hand margin of its respective entry on the Works Cited page. Thus, the writer includes the title in quotation marks as the signal phrase in the parenthetical citation in order to lead the reader directly to the source on the Works Cited page. Accessed 23 Mar. Parenthetical citations and Works Cited pages, used in conjunction, allow readers to know which sources you consulted in writing your essay, so that they can either verify your interpretation of the sources or use them in their own scholarly work. In such cases, give the page number of your edition making sure the edition is listed in your Works Cited page, of course followed by a semicolon, and then the appropriate abbreviations for volume vol. For example: Marx and Engels described human history as marked by class struggles 79; ch. See also our page on documenting periodicals in the Works Cited. Citing authors with same last names Sometimes more information is necessary to identify the source from which a quotation is taken. For instance, if two or more authors have the same last name, provide both authors' first initials or even the authors' full name if different authors share initials in your citation. For example: Although some medical ethicists claim that cloning will lead to designer children R. Miller 12 , others note that the advantages for medical research outweigh this consideration A. Miller JSTOR, doi According to Franck et al. The authors claim that one cause of obesity in the United States is government-funded farm subsidies Franck et al. Corresponding Works Cited entry: Franck, Caroline, et al. Citing multiple works by the same author If you cite more than one work by an author, include a shortened title for the particular work from which you are quoting to distinguish it from the others. Put short titles of books in italics and short titles of articles in quotation marks. Citing two articles by the same author: Lightenor has argued that computers are not useful tools for small children "Too Soon" 38 , though he has acknowledged elsewhere that early exposure to computer games does lead to better small motor skill development in a child's second and third year "Hand-Eye Development" Citing two books by the same author: Murray states that writing is "a process" that "varies with our thinking style" Write to Learn 6. Additionally, if the author's name is not mentioned in the sentence, format your citation with the author's name followed by a comma, followed by a shortened title of the work, and, when appropriate, the page number s : Visual studies, because it is such a new discipline, may be "too easy" Elkins, "Visual Studies" Citing multivolume works If you cite from different volumes of a multivolume work, always include the volume number followed by a colon. Put a space after the colon, then provide the page number s. If you only cite from one volume, provide only the page number in parentheses. Citing the Bible In your first parenthetical citation, you want to make clear which Bible you're using and underline or italicize the title , as each version varies in its translation, followed by book do not italicize or underline , chapter, and verse. For example: Ezekiel saw "what seemed to be four living creatures," each with faces of a man, a lion, an ox, and an eagle New Jerusalem Bible, Ezek. Citing indirect sources Sometimes you may have to use an indirect source. An indirect source is a source cited within another source. For such indirect quotations, use "qtd. For example: Ravitch argues that high schools are pressured to act as "social service centers, and they don't do that well" qtd. Note that, in most cases, a responsible researcher will attempt to find the original source, rather than citing an indirect source. Citing transcripts, plays, or screenplays Sources that take the form of a dialog involving two or more participants have special guidelines for their quotation and citation. Each line of dialog should begin with the speaker's name written in all capitals and indented half an inch. A period follows the name e. After the period, write the dialog. Each successive line after the first should receive an additional indentation. When another person begins speaking, start a new line with that person's name indented only half an inch. Repeat this pattern each time the speaker changes. You can include stage directions in the quote if they appear in the original source. Conclude with a parenthetical that explains where to find the excerpt in the source. Alcohol makes an early appearance in O'Neill's play. Pleadingly Give me a drink, Rocky. Harry said it was all right. God, I need a drink. Den grab it. It's right under your nose. He takes the bottle with both twitching hands and tilts it to his lips and gulps down the whiskey in big swallows. Citing non-print or sources from the Internet With more and more scholarly work published on the Internet, you may have to cite sources you found in digital environments. When creating in-text citations for electronic, film, or Internet sources, remember that your citation must reference the source on your Works Cited page. Sometimes writers are confused with how to craft parenthetical citations for electronic sources because of the absence of page numbers. However, these sorts of entries often do not require a page number in the parenthetical citation.
If you refer to the title of a source within your paper, capitalize all words that are four letters long or greater within the title of a source: Permanence and Change.
Note: in your References list, only the first word of a title will be capitalized: Writing new media.
How to Write Guide: How to Cite Other Papers in Your Paper
When capitalizing articles, capitalize both words in a hyphenated how long should an essay essay be word: Natural-Born Cyborgs. Put quotation marks around the titles of shorter works name as journal articles, articles from edited collections, television series episodes, and song titles: "Multimedia Narration: Constructing Possible Worlds;" "The One Where Chandler Can't Cry.
Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author's last name followed by the date of publication in parentheses. According to Jones"Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" p.
College essay writing serviceSix or More Authors: Use the first author's name followed by et al. You can include stage directions in the quote if they appear in the original source. Accessed 29 Sep. In this example, since the reader does not know the author of the article, an abbreviated title appears in the parenthetical citation, and the full title of the article appears first at the left-hand margin of its respective entry on the Works Cited page.
Jones found how often had difficulty using APA style" p. If the author is not name in a signal phrase, place the author's last article, the year of publication, and the page number in parentheses after the quotation.The simplest way to do this is to parenthetically give the author's last name and the year of publication, e. Another study of students and research decisions discovered that students succeeded with tutoring "Tutoring and APA," n. In-text references How you cite a working within your document varies depending on your writing style, whether you are quoting your source directly, and the type of source you are quoting. Citing the Bible In your first parenthetical citation, you want to make clear which Bible you're using and underline or italicize the title , as each version varies in its translation, followed by book do not italicize or underline , chapter, and verse. Usually, the simplest way to do this is to put all of the source information in parentheses at the end of the sentence i. Quotations When quoting always provide author, year and specific page citation or paragraph number for nonpaginated material. Use the lower-case letters with the year in the in-text citation. In this example, since the reader does not know the author of the article, an abbreviated title appears in the parenthetical citation, and the full title of the article appears first at the left-hand margin of its respective entry on the Works Cited page. In-text citations: Author-page style MLA format follows the author-page method of in-text citation.
Long quotations Place women of war essays quotations that are 40 words or longer in a free-standing block of typewritten lines and omit quotation marks.
Maintain double-spacing throughout.
When writing a paper, do I use italics for all titles? - Answers
The parenthetical essay should come after the closing punctuation mark. Jones's study found the following: Students often had difficulty citing APA style, especially when it was their write my essay without plagiarism time citing sources.
This difficulty could be attributed to the fact that many students failed to purchase a style manual or to ask their teacher for help. According to JonesAPA style is a difficult citation format for how learners. APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time articles Jones,p.